Time series of water temperature and salinity in the Caspian Sea


1. Maps of the vertical distribution of climatic standards of water temperature and salinity


Vertical distributions of temperature and salinity averaged for the period of 1897-2011 have been constructed for the transects of the Caspian Sea LME (Table 1).


Table 1 - Construction parameters of vertical fields of hydrological characteristics’ distribution for the transects of the Caspian Sea.
No. of TransectMesh step along the transect line (km)Mesh step by depth (m) / Standard horizons/profiles (m)
1201
2201
3201
101
4202
5400, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000
6200, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200
7400, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000

For the Northern Caspian Sea Transects, a vertical grid of 1m x 1m was used. For the deep-water transects of the Central and Southern Caspian Sea, standard horizons/profiles were used. A sample construction of the mean long-term vertical distribution of average water temperature in February for Transect No. 6. is shown in Figure 1

A sample construction of the mean long-term vertical distribution of average water temperature in February for Transect No. 6.
Figure 1 - A sample construction of the mean long-term vertical distribution of average water temperature in February for Transect No. 6.

Maps of the vertical distribution of the climatic temperature and salinity norm by months can be viewed there.


2. Maps of the vertical distribution of climatic anomalies of water temperature and salinity


To construct time series of water temperature and salinity anomalies, the absolute difference of values in the knots of the mesh were calculated for each transect by periods: 1914-1934, 1961-1967, 1972-1979, 1984-1991, and 2004-2010 (Figure 2) (Бердников и др., 2010; Матишов и др., 2012).

The change of the river runoff and sea level of the Caspian Sea for the period of 1900-2010
Figure 2 - The change of the river runoff (R) (A) and sea level (H) of the Caspian Sea (B) for the period of 1900-2010

Note. These periods were distinguished based on the graphs of long-term dynamics of the Caspian Sea level and the river runoff


An example of calculated water temperature anomaly is shown in Figure 3.

An example of calculated water temperature anomaly at Transect No. 6 in February of 1961-1967
Figure 3 - An example of calculated water temperature anomaly at Transect No. 6 in February of 1961-1967

Maps of the vertical distribution of temperature and salinity anomalies over time intervals and months can be veiwed there.